Little Juliana


This image from the movie shows a young Juliana in the Hotel Turismo. She is a composite character derived from the truth-seeking mandate of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (CAVR). Under the Fourth Geneva Convention, Indonesia incurred responsibilities towards East Timor's children. It was required to:

  1. make attempts to evacuate children from the field of conflict
  2. ensure that if evacuations or transfers of population were necessary within the occupied territory, members of the same family were not separated
  3. take measures to care for children under 15 years who were orphaned or separated from their families
  4. take all necessary steps to identify children and register their parentage
  5. facilitate the proper working of institutions for the care and education of children and
  6. refrain from changing children's personal status or enlisting them in its organizations.

The CAVR found that children in East Timor "experienced the full range of human rights violations." It concluded that the "overwhelming majority of these violations were committed by the Indonesian military and their auxiliaries. These forces killed, sexually violated, detained and tortured, forcibly displaced and forcibly recruited children."1

Excerpts from the CAVR's findings:

"Except for the age of the victims, the content of the reports of sexual violence against children recounted below barely differ from those in the chapter on sexual violence. They describe:

  • rape and sexual slavery in the resettlement camps;
  • "proxy" sexual violence aimed at family members still in the forest
  • violations against children engaged in clandestine activity that could turn into long-term sexual exploitation, and
  • strategic use of sexual violence as a form of torture, and its apparently opportunistic

For children, as for adults, sexual violence was conducted openly without fear of sanction by all ranks of the military and by East Timorese paramilitaries, as well as by persons in positions of civilian authority such as village heads. Because of the special vulnerability of children, the CAVR concluded that trauma is widespread among East Timorese who grew up under the Indonesian occupation."

1 Please see CAVR 2005, Chega Final Report - 7.8 (Rights of the Child) for more details.