Explosive Science - Advanced

Course aim:

This five-day course will equip the students with a comprehensive view of Explosive Materials and provide participants with an introduction to chemistry and its application to detonable material systems. Mechanisms of deflagration and detonation as well as the effects of explosive blast will also be explored.

Attendees will receive a comprehensive set of notes covering the lecture content.

Who should attend?

Anyone who is working in the mining and defence sectors where explosive substances are used including (and not limited to): design engineers; material scientists; systems engineers; project managers; serving officers and end-users. This course is technical in nature and therefore a related technical qualification in a tertiary establishment is desirable to get the most out of the content.

Course outline:

Introduction to explosives (1.5 hours)

Historical perspectives | Basic chemical and physical concepts for explosives and explosions | Introduction to chemical reactions | Types of explosions.

Properties of explosive materials (1.5 hours)

Ignition, Stability and Reactivity | Velocity of detonation (VoD) | Brisance | Density | Chemical composition | Toxicity.

Thermochemistry of explosives (2 hours)

Explosive reactions| Oxygen balance | Volume of products of explosion | Energy from chemical reactions | Heat of explosion (Q) | Explosive power |TNT equivalence.

Tutorial (1 hour)

A session will be provided so that the student can work through some of the issues raised in this course under the guidance of the course presenter.

DAY 2

Classification, performance and type of explosives (5 hours)

Classification of pure explosives | Performance parameters | High Explosives| Low Explosives | Pyrotechnics | Physical and chemical aspects of combustion | Deflagration | Detonation |Aspects of manufacturing.

Tutorial (1 hour)

A session will be provided so that the student can work through some of the issues raised in this course under the guidance of the course presenter.

DAY 3

Forms of explosive materials and manufacture (1.5 hour)

Overview of some specific explosive materials| Applications | Manufacturing.

Initiation and initiators (1 hour)

Initiation and propagation of explosive reactions | Non-electric initiators | Hot-wire initiators | Exploding bridge-wire initiators | Explosive trains.

Explosive detection (1 hour)

Overview of explosive detection techniques | Future developments.

Introduction to blast (2 hours)

Nature of Blast | Effects of blast on people and structures (including vehicles) | Engineering principles to protect building occupants from blast (blast mitigation) | Case studies

Tutorial (blast calculations) – 2 hours

Introduction to Kingery-Bulmash calculations | Worked examples will be presented and discussed and students given the opportunity to do their own calculations

DAY 4

Introduction to shock wave theory (2 hours)

Introduction to waves | Calculation of the particle velocity | Elastic waves |Inelastic waves | Shock waves | Rankine-Hugoniot equations | Hugoniots | The Rayleigh line and Isentrope | X-t diagrams | Impedance matching | Calculating the pressure due to collisions | The Hugoniot Elastic Limit and its meaning | Experimental techniques | Calculations

Introduction to detonics (2 hours)

Hot-spot mechanisms | Homogeneous detonation | Deflagration-to-Detonation | Shock-to-Detonation | Chapman-Jouget (CJ) theory | ZND detonation model | The von Neumann spike | Equations of State

Tutorial on shock wave theory (2 hours)

Introduction to the calculation of CJ pressures and detonation-wave velocities in an explosive.

DAY 5

Computational modelling (2 Hours)

Introduction to computer codes including hydrocodes | Discretisation | Empirical vs analytical vs computational | Equations of state | Strength models | Failure models |Erosion models | Modelling explosions and explosive effects | Modelling explosive impacts.

Introduction to Insensitive Munition (IM) design (with a focus on fragment impact) (2 Hours)

Why IM? | Explosive-material interaction | Streak photography techniques| Shock initiation and ‘Pop plots’ | Charge-diameter effects | Critical diameter measurements | Particle Impact Mitigation Systems | How to calculate whether your explosive will initiate when hit by a fast-moving fragment | More on impedance matching and comparison to Hydrocode calculations | Tutorial questions

Explosive materials models and case studies in computational modelling in ANSYS AUTODYN (2 Hours)

More on Equations-of-State | Jones-Wilkins-Lee | Lee-Tarver shock initiation model | Pitfalls of computational techniques | Single Mousetrap modelling | Projectile impact modelling | The Gap Test| Discussion of results

Course Leaning Objectives

At the end of this course, the student will be able to:

LO1 Explain basic chemical principles relevant to explosives science, including stoichiometry, chemical bonding, intermolecular forces, thermochemistry and reaction kinetics (including detonation vs deflagration);

LO2 Discuss the differences between types of explosives;

LO3 Explain the application for each type of explosive and show how each type can be used in an explosive train;

LO4 Discuss IM-compliant munitions;

LO5 Explain the different types of stimuli that will lead to detonation of an explosive;

LO6 Explain the way a detonation evolves within the explosive composition and how these waves are sustained;

LO7 Describe shock-wave theory (including equations-of-state); Rankine-Hugoniot theory and C-J theory.


Presenters:

Paul J Hazell

Paul has over 20 years of experience studying the impact behaviour of materials and explosive engineering. In 2012 he moved to Canberra, Australia from the UK to take up the post of Professor of Impact Dynamics at UNSW Canberra. Before taking this position he was Head of the Centre for Ordnance Science and Technology at Cranfield University’s Shrivenham campus (at the UK Defence Academy). He has published extensively, appeared in several documentaries and presented his research work at numerous symposia. He has published two books on protection technologies with the most recent called ‘ARMOUR: Materials, Theory, and Design’ (CRC Press, 2015).

Adrian Garrido Sanchis

Dr. Adrian Garrido Sanchis is a Chemical Engineer that works as an Associate Lecturer at UNSW School of Science, in Canberra, where he lectures chemical and biological weapons and explosives. He specializes on developing new technologies for explosive detection and the purification and sterilization of wastewater from bench to commercial scale applications. He has pioneered the development of a novel sterilization process, which has been adopted by Australian Pork Limited (APL), who have recently funded his research and have funded the development and construction of a small scale water treatment pilot unit which has been trialled at a piggeries water treatment plant in NSW. He submitted a provisional patent application via UNSW to seek protection for this new process.

Adrian has substantial experience in commercial R&D and a unique range of abilities and skill set in water treatment and automation/environmental monitoring through IoT devices.

 

 

 

COURSE AVAILABILITY

CANBERRA
30 November 2020 - 4 December 2020
CANBERRA
6 December 2021 - 10 December 2021